‘The children of the corn’ (photo on Flickr by Andrés Thor).
Conspicuous by its absence at the recent Planet Under Pressure (PUP) conference in London (26–29 Mar 2012) was the topic of livestock production. While several presenters, panel members and other delegates did mention in passing the need to cut back on meat consumption to save the planet from the emissions of greenhouse gases generated in the production of meat, there was scarce mention of the 1.3 billion people who rely on livestock for their livelihoods or the nearly 1 billion people who are undernourished, or the fact that livestock production contributes up to 50 per cent of the gross domestic product of poor countries, or that global meat demand is expected to far outstrip that of grain, growing by 40 per cent by 2025.
Livestock are the backbone of small-scale agriculture and economic development throughout the developing world, helping poor households and communities endure shocks such as drought and price fluctuations; and providing them with manure to fertilize soils and traction to pull ploughs; high-quality foods they can either consume or sell; rural and peri-urban jobs and livelihoods; and a regular cash income from sales of milk and eggs and surplus stock with which to pay for medical bills, children’s school fees and other essentials.
That’s the good news. The bad news is that raising and selling livestock also carries risks and causes harm. Here, for example, is a statement from Livestock’s Long Shadow, the rather famous (in agricultural development circles) report of a study published in 2006 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO):
The livestock sector emerges as one of the top contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global. The findings of this report suggest that it should be a major policy focus when dealing with problems of land degradation, climate change and air pollution, water shortage and water pollution, and loss of biodiversity. Livestock’s contribution to environmental problems is on a massive scale and its potential contribution to their solution is equally large. The impact is so significant that it needs to be addressed with urgency.’ — Livestock’s Long Shadow, FAO, 2006.
Despite livestock issues having been at the centre of public debates about livestock ‘goods’ and ‘bads’, especially since Livestock’s Long Shadow came out, with its report that livestock production comprises 18 per cent of the greenhouse gasses generated by humankind, the problematic (and often impassioned) livestock topic was hardly raised at PUP. (One panel session was scheduled for this topic, but an emergency prevented some of the panel members from attending the conference and the session was cancelled.) That’s a shame, since many of PUP’s nearly 3,000 delegates have the kind of scientific training to have tackled global livestock ‘goods’ and ‘bads’ with dispassion, evidence and credibility.
It will be interesting to see if this topic is seen to merit attention at the, much larger, Rio+20 sustainable development conference this June.
What do you think? Are livestock issues of sufficient import to justify their inclusion in presentations and discussions at Rio+20? Please post your thoughts in the Comments box.
To read some of ILRI’s views on the livestock goods and bads debates, visit this Pinterest page, where several ILRI articles on the subject are posted.
Read more about the Planet Under Pressure conference on the ILRI News Blog
Planet under pressure / Livestock under the radar, 26 Mar 2012.
Planet under pressure / A numbers game–but which numbers are the numbers that matter?, 26 Mar 2012.
Planet under pressure / Food security policy brief, 27 Mar 2012.
Planet under pressure / ‘Get out of the nerd loop’–NYT environmental reporter, 27 Mar 2012.
Planet under pressure / Agriculture (finally) at the global change table, 28 Mar 2012.
Planet under pressure / Navigating the Anthropocene, 29 Mar 2012.
Now I am undergoing M.Sc. (Agriculture)
Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics in Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India.
I am doing my thesis research programme in Forage breeding please send to me useful information regarding forage breeding which has to be useful for cattle and livestock
@ Ramakrishnan: Please visit our website (www.ilri.org), or our D-Space repository (called ‘Mahider’ and found at https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/1) and search for forage terms of most interest to you. You also might be interested to sign up to receive email alerts from our Fodder Adoption blog (http://fodderadoption.wordpress.com/). Thank you for your interest!
Talking of Rio+20, is ILRI actually providing some inputs to this process? If yes, what is the ILRI vision for the future of the livestock sector?
Well, I know that’s a hard question, but some ideas about the role of small-scale livetsock keepers in this vision would be very much appreciated.
@Ilse: ILRI positions about ‘livestock futures’ are expressed in the following three electronic pin boards on Pinterest (http://pinterest.com/susan_macmillan/).
Please dip in to the article posted here and let us know what you think!
(1) Global Livestock Agenda: http://pinterest.com/susan_macmillan/global-livestock-agenda/
(2) Livestock Goods and Bads: http://pinterest.com/susan_macmillan/livestock-goods-and-bads/
(3) Livestock Futures: http://pinterest.com/susan_macmillan/livestock-futures/
@Ilse: and here is ‘the one that got away’ at the PUP conference:
One session that never happened was on ‘Livestock and global change: A dialogue on key pressures and potential solutions’. To have been led by systems analysts Mario Herrero, of ILRI, and Philip Thornton, of ILRI and the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security (CCAFS), and to have included on the panel ILRI veterinary epidemiologist Delia Grace and ILRI partner Tara Garnett, who leads the Food Climate Research Network at the University of Surrey, this session was cancelled due to an emergency. The session was sorely missed since there was a dearth of discussion at PUP on livestock issues, which these scientists and others believe need to have a higher profile at such events. What the session would have covered:
Due to the magnitude of the livestock sector, the pressures it exerts on the world’s natural resources, and the multiple socio-economic benefits it provides, this session will span across many subject areas of interest (food security, poverty reduction, vulnerability, greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, competition for biomass, land, water, and others). The topic is central to developing-country agendas, which often have large livestock sectors and people depending on them.’
It was indeed a shame that livestock, their importance and impact were sorely missed in the debates (though WSPA had a well-stocked stall of materials and informed staff throughout the event). However in many workshops I went to at PuP the impact of livestock was recognised and a few presentations explored solutions. WSPA has also run many events in the Rio+20 process with key partners from the global south and farming community – you can see our publications and details here http://www.wspa-international.org/wspaswork/hsa-delegates/default.aspx and here http://www.wspa-international.org/latestnews/2012/un-humane-future-farm-animals.aspx.